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Nowadays a lot of Chinese celebrate Western festivals. Some people are afraid that this would lead to the loss of Chinese culture. What do you think? Write an essay of about 400 words.

In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.



The Celebration of Western Festivals

No one can have failed to notice the fact that Western festivals gain ever-increasing popularity in China. An increasing number of Chinese are fond of celebrating Western festivals today. On Valentine’s Day, many people, especially the young, give flowers or chocolate to the one they love; when Christmas approaches, nearly every store put on decorations like Santa Claus, snowflakes and even Christmas trees, not to mention the millions of people immersed in the thrilling atmosphere of festival on Christmas Eve; even such holidays as Halloween and the Easter Day are becoming known and celebrated by more and more Chinese. In comparison, such traditional Chinese festivals as the Spring Festival, the Festival of Lanterns and the Mid-Autumn Day seem to be losing their attraction.

In view of such a situation, many are worried that Chinese culture will be ignored or even ruined by the invasion of Western festivals. Personally, I believe that we needn’t be over worried. Actually, the increasing popularity of some Western festivals in China is nothing accidental, but some thing justifiable.

First, it is a part of cultural globalization. With the development of communication science and technology and along with more and more nations opening up to the outside world, the world today has turned into a global village, with many national things becoming international. China is no exception. While we are absorbing advanced science and technology from foreign countries, we are also taking in different cultures.

Secondly, it is a sign of China’s rejuvenating. As a nation boasting a civilization of 5,000 years, Chinese have been known for their spirit of accommodation or open-mindedness. China used to be a melting pot of cultures as the U.S. is today. In the prosperous Tang dynasty, China was host to travelers and settlers from over the world. Actually, being accommodating is a sign of any thriving nation. Therefore, we should be pleased rather than upset to see Chinese people embracing foreign festivals.

It is true that some traditional Chinese festivals are losing their appeal to many people, but this does not necessarily the ruin of Chinese culture. Actually, a closer inspection reveals that most Chinese celebrate Western festivals merely out of the wish to seek novelty, to find a new way to entertain themselves or to express their identity in the face of the older generation. On the other hand, most Chinese have not ignored their native festivals. A convincing proof is that the Spring Festival still sees the largest flow of population in the world as most Chinese rush to their homes for family reunion.

In a word, while we are giving priority to the preservation and development of traditional Chinese culture, we needn’t worry too much about the inflow of foreign culture.







Say No to Pirated Products

No one can have failed to notice the fact that piracyhas become a grave problem with which we are confronted. Taking a look around, we can find examples tool numerous to list. In many places we see people peddling pirated books or disks. There is hardly anyone who has not been asked the question: “Wanna a disk?”Actually, piracyhas become so widespread that it has severely affected people’s life and hindered the development of the nation’s economy and culture.

A number of factors could be responsible for this phenomenon, but the following are the most critical ones. First, pirated products are much cheaper than copyrighted ones, so they are very attractive to people, especially youngsters, who are not financially well-off. Secondly, with highly developed technology, it is not difficult to manufacture pirated products. An average person can produce thousands of copies of a film only if he has a computer and a recorder, which won’t cost him much. Last but not least, relevant laws are not in existence or in effect.

Piracy is bound to generate severe consequences if we keep turning a blind eye to it. First, intellectual property rightsare severely infringed upon and honest producers will lose the motivation to develop new products.As a result, the nation’s economy and culture will stay where they are and see no progress.Meanwhile, pirated products are often of low quality,thus damaging the interest of buyers, especially customers who wish to purchase copyrighted products.Finally, the destruction of pirated products means a grievous waste of the nation’s resources. It is really upsetting to see thousands of pirated books burnt or millions of pirated DVDs of films and music crushed.

In view of the seriousness of the problem,effective measures must be taken before things get worse.First, it isessential that pertinent laws and regulations be worked out and rigidly enforced to ban the manufacture and circulation of pirated products.Meanwhile, a deep-going, widespread and everlasting campaign should be launched to enhance people’s awareness of protecting intellectual property rights and saying no to pirated products.With proper laws and an alert public, it will be only a matter of time before piracybecomes a thing of the past. /With these measures taken, we have reasons to believe that the problem can be solved in the near future./Only with these measures taken can we expect a bright future.



1、【题目】Roger Rosenblatt ’s book Black Fiction,in attemptingto apply literaryratherthansociopolitical criteria to its subject, successfully alters the approach taken by mostprevious studies. As Rosenblatt notes, criticism of Black writing has often served as apretextfor expounding on Black history.Addison Gayle’s recent work, for example, judgesthe value of Black fiction by overtly political standards, rating each work according tothe notions of Black identity which it propounds.Although fictionassuredly springs from politicalcircumstances ,its authors react tothose circumstances in ways other than ideological, and talking about novels and storiesprimarilyas instrumentsof ideologycircumvents much of the fictional enterprise.Rosenblatt ’s literaryanalysisdisclosesaffinitiesand connections among works of Blackfiction which solely political studies have overlooked or ignored. Writing acceptable criticism ofBlack fiction, however, presupposes giving satisfactory answers to a number of questions.First of all, is there a sufficient reason, other than the facial identity of the authors, to group together works by Black authorsSecond, how does Black fiction make itself distinct from other modern fiction with which it islargely contemporaneous Rosenblatt shows that Black fiction constitutes a distinct bodyof writingthat has an identifiable, coherent literarytradition.Looking at novels writtenby Black over the last eighty years, he discovers recurringconcerns and designs independentof chronology. These structures are thematic, and they spring, not surprisingly, from thecentralfact that the Black charactersin these novels exist in a predominantlywhite culture,whether they try to conform to that culture or rebel against it.Black Fictiondoes leave some aestheticquestions open. Rosenblatt ’s thematic analysispermits considerable objectivity; he even explicitly states that it is not his intentionto judge the merit of the various works D yet his reluctance seems misplaced, especiallysince an attempt to appraise might have led to interesting results. For instance, some ofthe novels appear to be structurallydiffuse.Is this a defect,or are the authors workingout of, or trying to forge, a different kind of aesthetic In addition, the style of someBlack novels, like JeanToomey’s Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism; does thistechnique provide a counterpointto the prevalenttheme that portrays the fate against whichBlack heroes are pitted,a theme usuallyconveyed by more naturalisticmodes of expressionIn spite of such omissions, what Rosenblatt does include in his discussion makes foran astute and worthwhile study. Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels, bringingto our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works like James WeldonJohnson’s Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Its argument is tightly constructed, andits forthright, lucid style exemplifies levelheaded and penetrating criticism.

1. The author of the text is primarily concerned with __________.

[A] Evaluating the soundness of a work of criticism.[B] Comparing various critical approaches to a subject.

[C] Discussing the limitations of a particular kind of criticism.

[D] Summarizing the major points made in a work of criticism.

2. The author of the text believes that Black Fiction would have been improved hadRosenblatt __________.

[A] Evaluated more carefully the ideological andhistoricalaspects of Black fiction.

[B] Attempted to be more objective in his approach to novels and stories by Blackauthors.

[C] Explorein greaterdetailthe recurrentthematicconcerns of Black fictionthroughout its history.

[D] Assessed the relative literary merit of the novels he analyzes thematically.

3.author ’s discussion of Black Fiction can be best described as __________.

[A] Pedantic and contentious.

[B] Critical but admiring.

[C] Ironic and deprecating.

[D] Argumentative but unfocused.author of the text employs all of the following in the discussion ofRosenblatt ’s

4.book EXCEPT: __________.

[A] Rhetorical questions.

[B] Specific examples.

[C] Comparison and contrast.

[D] Definition of terms.

5. The author of the text refers to James WeldonJohnson’s Autobiography of anEx-Colored Man most probably in order to __________.

[A] point out affinitiesbetween Rosenblatt ’s method of thematic analysis and earliercriticism.

[B] Clarify the point about expressionistic style made earlier in the passage.

[C] Qualify the assessment ofRosenblatt ’s book made in the first paragraph of thepassage.

[D] give a specific example of one of the accomplishments ofRosenblatt ’s work.














In China, to restore lost property to its original owner is regarded as one of the most cherished virtues. However, the draft property rights law stipulates that property Owners should pay some money to the one who returns the property. Is it a deviation from traditional values? Write a composition of about 400 words to state your view.

In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.



In Favor of Rewards for Good Conduct

To restore lost property to its original owner describes one of the most cherished virtues embodied by the Chinese people. The draft law stipulates that property owners should give rewards to the people or organizations that return their property, such as storage. To some people, the new provision challenges the virtue that China has advocated for thousands of years by including economic compensation into law. Yet to me, it is a good thing to regulate a moral concept with law.

Since people spend time and energy in restoring lost property, it is reasonable for the actual owner to offer some material reward. There is no contradiction between kind deeds and material compensation. If those who help others by fighting off robbers can be rewarded, why not those who return lost property? More importantly, giving people tangible reward has significance in reality. According to a survey, most people who get back their lost items are willing to give a reward to the finder. Providing a compromise solution between returning and keeping lost items, this new provision encourages people to return lost property rather than hiding it. Although one may say it diminishes the nobility associated with it, it is better to have more lost property restored to original ownership.

Law should play a role only where moral principle fails, otherwise, there would be chaos in social relations. I think this is the basis for transformation of law, specifically the stipulation of restoring lost property in propert, rights law. The major goal of this legislation is to restore property owners’ right over lost property. It is true that restoring lost property to its owner is our traditional virtue. For a long time, we have been relying on this moral principle in dealing with lost property. But today, we have to admit that it falls behind the realities of current society if we rely solely on it in handling the issue of lost property, the result is a much slighter possibility of lost property being returned and increasing disputes about restoring lost property.

All in all, without modification, traditional virtues will be going farther away from the realities of modern life and become irrelevant. What’s more, the draft of the property rights law stipulates that a finder“can’’ receive reward, which means they can also refuse reward. Thus, this does not thwart virtuous people from practicing our traditional virtues.



1、【题目】Bernard Bailyn has recentlyreinterpretedthe early historyof the United States by applyingnew socialresearchfindingson theexperiencesofEuropean migrants.Inhisreinterpretation,migrationbecomes the organizingprinciplefor rewritingthe historyofpreindustrial North America. His approach rests on four separate propositions.The firstof these asserts that residentsof early modern England moved regularlyabouttheir countryside; migrating to the New World was simply a natural spillover. Although atfirstthe colonies held littlepositiveattractionfor the English D they would rather havestayed home D by the eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America becausethey regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn holds that, contrary to thenotion that used to flourish in America history textbooks, there was never a typical NewWorld community.For example, the economic and demographiccharacterof early New Englandtowns varied considerably.Bailyn's third proposition suggest two general patterns prevailing among the manythousands of migrants:one group came as indenturedservants,another came to acquire land.Surprisingly,Bailyn suggests that those who recruitedindentured servants were the drivingforces of transatlanticmigration.These colonialentrepreneurshelped determine the socialcharacterof people who came to preindustrialNorth America.At first,thousands ofunskilled laborers were recruited; by the 1730's, however, American employers demandedskilled artisans.Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized hinterland of theEuropean culture system. He is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were partof an Anglo-American empire. But to divide the empire into English core and colonialperiphery, as Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, asBailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in England. But whatof seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers created effective laws, built adistinguished university, and published books Bailyn might respond that New England wasexceptional. However, the ideas and institutions developed by New England Puritans hadpowerful effects on North American culture.Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of indenturedservantswho migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails to link their experience with thepolitical development of the United States. Evidence presented in his work suggests howwe might make such a connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for theperiod during which they had sold their time to American employers. It is not surprisingthat as soon as they served their time they passed up good wages in the cities and headedwest to ensure theirpersonal independence by acquiringland. Thus, it is in the west thata peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were suspicious ofauthority and intensely anti-aristocratic.

1.Which of the followingstatements about migrants to colonialNorth America is supportedby information in the text

[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as indenturedservants than as free agents interested in acquiring land.

[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more successful atmaking a livelihood than were farmers and artisans.

[C] Migrants to colonialNorth America were more successfulat acquiringtheir own landduring the eighteenth century than during the seventeenth century.

[D] By the 1730's,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more demand by Americanemployers than were unskilled laborers.

2.The author of the text states that Bailyn failed to

[A] Give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political interdependence of thecolonies and England.

[B] Describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds preserved theirculture in the United States.

[C] Take advantage of social research on the experiences of colonists who migrated tocolonial North America specifically to acquire land.

[D] Relate the experience of the migrants to the politicalvalues that eventuallyshapedthe character of the United States.

3.Which of the following best summarizes the author's evaluation of Bailyn's fourthproposition

[A] It is totally implausible.

[B] It is partially acceptable.

[C] It is highly admirable.

[D] It is controversial though persuasive.

4.According to the text,Bailyn and the author agree on which of the followingstatementsabout the culture of colonial New England

[A] High culture in New England never equaled the high culture of England.

[B] The culturalachievements of colonialNew England have generallybeen unrecognizedby historians.

[C] The colonistsimitatedthe high cultureof England , and did not develop a culturethat was uniquely their own.

[D] The southern colonies were greatly influenced by the high culture of New England.

5.The author of the text would be most likely to agree with which of the followingstatements about Bailyn's work

[A] Bailyn underestimates the effects of Puritan thought on North American culture.

[B] Bailyn overemphasizes the economic dependence of the colonies on Great Britain.

[C] Bailyn'sdescriptionof thecoloniesas part of an Anglo-American empireis misleading and incorrect.

[D] Bailyn failedto test his propositionson a specificgroup of migrants to colonialNorth America.





















Failure Teaches Success

Paul Ehrlich, a chemist, discovered a drug to treat those afflicted with syphilis(梅毒). It was named "Formula 606," because the first 605 tests were mistakes. The lesson we can draw from this story is clear and simple: discovery or progress is born in mistakes.

Making mistakes is a valuable learning experience. A now famous story at IBM involved founder Thomas Watson and one of his vice presidents who took the initiative on the development of a new product. As reported in Fortune, the product was a risky venture that ended up a colossal failure and cost the company $10 million. Watson called the executive into his office saying there was something he wanted to discuss with him. Sure he was about to lose his job; the young man blurted out, "I guess you want my resignation?" Watson replied, "You must be kidding. We've just spent $10 million educating you." Watson's logic is this: anyone making a multi-million-dollar mistake had to learn something that would help him do a better job the next time.

Furthermore, making mistakes gives one an opportunity to try a new approach. China's progress in the past decades is a case in point. After Liberation in 1949, China, under the leadership of Chairman Mao, gradually built up a nationwide state-run economy. This mode of economy was originally intended to ensure both stable economic development and social justice. Unfortunately, what it resulted in was economic stagnation and lasting poverty. Recognizing this fatal mistake in Mao's economic policy, Deng Xiaoping took a new approach—a gradual but dramatic reform. He first introduced some elements of market economy, hoping to juxtapose planned economy and market economy. This approach worked for some years, but then proved ineffective. Finally, after a series of trials and errors, he decided that market economy was China's only choice. Due to this strategic turning, China's economy has now embarked upon a stable and dynamic course. Although Mao's mistakes caused Chinese people painful sacrifice, we are lucky that we have learned our lessons and now we are marching on the road of prosperity.

Admittedly, mistakes will not automatically lead to discovery or progress. We must analyze every failure to find its cause; we must honestly face defeat and never fake success; we must exploit the failure, we must never use failure as an excuse for not trying again. In a word, we must learn how to fail intelligently.

As a saying goes, to err is human. To this I would add: To learn from errors is progress.























































1、【题目】汉译英:暮色中,河湾里落满云霞,与天际的颜色混合一起,分不清哪是流云哪是水湾。也就在这一幅绚烂的图画旁边,在河湾之畔,一群羊正在低头觅食。 它们几乎没有一个顾得上抬起头来, 看一眼这美丽的黄昏。也许它们要抓紧时间,在即将回家的最后一刻再次咀嚼。这是黄河滩上的一幕。牧羊人不见了,他不知在处歇息。只有这些美生灵自由自在地享受着这个黄昏。 这儿水草肥美,让它们长得肥滚滚的,像些胖娃娃。如果走近了,会发现它们那可爱的神情,洁白的牙齿,那丰富而单纯的表情。 如果稍稍长久一点端详这张张面庞,还会生出无限的怜悯。


Beside this picture with profusions of colors, a group of sheep are lowing their heads, eating by the river bank. Hardly none of them would spare some time to raise their eyes to have a glance at the beautiful dusk. They are, perhaps, taking use of every minute to enjoy their last chew before being driven home. This is a picture of the Yellow River bank, in which the shepherd disappears, and no one knows where he is resting himself. Only the sheep, however, as free creatures, are joyfully appreciating the dusk. The exuberant water plants have nutrited the sheep, making them grow as fat as balls. When approaching near, you would find their lily-white teeth and a variety of innocent facial impressions.





Life is like a cup of wine; people who love it discover inexhaustible wonders from it. Hold in the hand and gaze at it, the dark red color is reminiscent of the blood, which is the impress of life. Take a sip of it and appreciate the taste, the bittersweet flavor is exactly the same with life, which is complicated and blurred. Once the sip is swallowed, the lingering fragrance pleases the heart and refreshes the mind, leaving a person lifelong benefit. There was a remarkable resemblance between life and wine: the taste becomes more delicious as the wine mellows, just as life gets better as it becomes more abundant. When life comes to twilight years, it looks calm and tastes full of wisdom and generosity, just like a bottle of wine to be savored.



1、【题目】汉译英:茶 花(camellia)的自然花期在 12 月至翌年 4 月,以红色系为主,另有黄色系和白色系等,花色艳丽。本届花展充分展示了茶花的品种资源和科研水平,是近三年来本市规模最大的一届茶花展。为了使广大植物爱好者有更多与茶花亲密接触的机会,本届茶花展的布展范围延伸至整个园区,为赏花游客带来便利。此次茶花展历时2个月,展期内 200 多个茶花品种将陆续亮相。


Camellia’s flowering period starts from December and ends in the next April,and the colors of the flowers are bright and showy with red in majority, yellow, white and other colors in minority. It’s the city’s largest camellia show in recent three years, which fully displays camellia ’s various species as well as human’s scientific research level of it. In order to provide the majority of plant-lovers with more opportunities to closely appreciate the beauty of camellia, the area of the Camellia Show is extended to the whole garden so that it can bring more convenience for the visitors.

The Camellia Show takes over two months, in which more than 200 various camellias will be presented successively.



1、【题目】California is a land of variety and contrast. Almost every type of physical land feature , sort of arctic ice fields and tropical jungles can be found within its borders. Sharply contrasting types of land often lie very close to one another. People living in Bakersfield , for instance,can visit the Pacific Ocean and the coastal plain , the fertile San Joaquin Valley , the arid Mojave Desert , and the high Sierra Nevada, all within a radius of about 100 miles. In other areas it is possible to go snow skiing in the morning and surfing in the evening of the same day , without having to travel long distance. Contrast abounds in California. The highest point in the United States (outside Alaska ) is in California , and so is the lowest point (including Alaska )。 Mount Whitney , 14,494 feet above sea level,is separated from Death Valley , 282 feet below sea level,by a distance of only 100 miles. The two areas have a difference in altitude of almost three miles. California has deep , clear mountain lakes like Lake Tahoe , the deepest in the country, but it also has shallow, salty desert lakes. It has Lake Tulainyo , 12,020 feet above sea level, and the lowest lake in the country , the Salton Sea, 236 feet below sea level. Some of its lakes , like Owens Lake in Death Valley , are not lakes at all: they are dried up lake beds. In addition to mountains ,lakes, valleys,deserts, and plateaus,California has its Pacific coastline, stretching longer than the coastlines of Oregon and Washington combined.

1. Which of the following is the lowest point in the United States?

A. Lake Tulainyo B. Mojave desert C. Death Valley D. The Salton Sea

2. Where is the highest point in the United States located ?

A. Lake Tahoe.

B. Sierra Nevada. C. Mount Whitney.

D. Alaska.

3. How far away is Death Valley from Mount Whitney?

A. About 3 miles.

D. 14,494 feet.

4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as being within a radius ofabout 100 miles of Bakersfield ?

A. The Pacific Ocean.

B. San Joaquin Valley.

C. Mojave Desert.

D. Oregon andWashington.

5. Which statement best demonstrates that California is a land of variety and contrast ?

A. The highest lake in California is Lake Tulainyo.

B. It is possible to go surfing and snow skiing in some parts of California without having totravel long distance.

C. Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley, Mojave Desert and the Pacific Ocean all lie withina radius of about 100 miles.

D. Owens Lake , in Death Valley , is not really a lake at all.









1、【题目】汉译英:流逝,表现了南国人对时间最早的感觉。“子在川上曰,逝者如斯夫。”他们发现无论是潺潺小溪,还是浩荡大河,都一去不复返,流逝之际青年变成了老翁而绿草转眼就枯黄,很自然有错阴的紧迫感。 流逝也许是缓慢的,但无论如何缓慢,对流逝的恐惧使人们必须用“流逝”这个词来时时警戒后人, 必须急匆匆地行动,给这个词灌注一种紧张感。


They realized that both the babbling brook and the mighty river would flow on, and that their waters would never return. They found that as time passed by, young men would become old and the green grass would turn yellow and wither in almost the blink of an eye. A sense of urgency naturally arose over the elusiveness of time. No matter how slowly time flowed, the very fear of its transiency compelled people to use the word“passage to warn the coming generations of the necessity”of taking prompt action; thus instilling the word with a sense of tension.




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