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专业英语八级问答题
 更新时间:2024-04-22 20:54:06

1、【题目】RogerRosenblatt’sbookBlackFiction,inattemptingtoapplyliteraryratherthansociopoliticalcriteriatoitssubject,successfullyalterstheapproachtakenbymostpreviousstudies.AsRosenblattnotes,criticismofBlackwritinghasoftenservedasapretextforexpoundingonBlackhistory.AddisonGayle’srecentwork,forexample,judgesthevalueofBlackfictionbyovertlypoliticalstandards,ratingeachworkaccordingtothenotionsofBlackidentitywhichitpropounds.Althoughfictionassuredlyspringsfrompoliticalcircumstances,itsauthorsreacttothosecircumstancesinwaysotherthanideological,andtalkingaboutnovelsandstoriesprimarilyasinstrumentsofideologycircumventsmuchofthefictionalenterprise.Rosenblatt’sliteraryanalysisdisclosesaffinitiesandconnectionsamongworksofBlackfictionwhichsolelypoliticalstudieshaveoverlookedorignored.WritingacceptablecriticismofBlackfiction,however,presupposesgivingsatisfactoryanswerstoanumberofquestions.Firstofall,isthereasufficientreason,otherthanthefacialidentityoftheauthors,togrouptogetherworksbyBlackauthorsSecond,howdoesBlackfictionmakeitselfdistinctfromothermodernfictionwithwhichitislargelycontemporaneousRosenblattshowsthatBlackfictionconstitutesadistinctbodyofwritingthathasanidentifiable,coherentliterarytradition.LookingatnovelswrittenbyBlackoverthelasteightyyears,hediscoversrecurringconcernsanddesignsindependentofchronology.Thesestructuresarethematic,andtheyspring,notsurprisingly,fromthecentralfactthattheBlackcharactersinthesenovelsexistinapredominantlywhiteculture,whethertheytrytoconformtothatcultureorrebelagainstit.BlackFictiondoesleavesomeaestheticquestionsopen.Rosenblatt’sthematicanalysispermitsconsiderableobjectivity;heevenexplicitlystatesthatitisnothisintentiontojudgethemeritofthevariousworksDyethisreluctanceseemsmisplaced,especiallysinceanattempttoappraisemighthaveledtointerestingresults.Forinstance,someofthenovelsappeartobestructurallydiffuse.Isthisadefect,oraretheauthorsworkingoutof,ortryingtoforge,adifferentkindofaestheticInaddition,thestyleofsomeBlacknovels,likeJeanToomey’sCane,vergesonexpressionismorsurrealism;doesthistechniqueprovideacounterpointtotheprevalentthemethatportraysthefateagainstwhichBlackheroesarepitted,athemeusuallyconveyedbymorenaturalisticmodesofexpressionInspiteofsuchomissions,whatRosenblattdoesincludeinhisdiscussionmakesforanastuteandworthwhilestudy.BlackFictionsurveysawidevarietyofnovels,bringingtoourattentionintheprocesssomefascinatingandlittle-knownworkslikeJamesWeldonJohnson’sAutobiographyofanEx-ColoredMan.Itsargumentistightlyconstructed,anditsforthright,lucidstyleexemplifieslevelheadedandpenetratingcriticism.

1.Theauthorofthetextisprimarilyconcernedwith__________.

[A]Evaluatingthesoundnessofaworkofcriticism.[B]Comparingvariouscriticalapproachestoasubject.

[C]Discussingthelimitationsofaparticularkindofcriticism.

[D]Summarizingthemajorpointsmadeinaworkofcriticism.

2.TheauthorofthetextbelievesthatBlackFictionwouldhavebeenimprovedhadRosenblatt__________.

[A]EvaluatedmorecarefullytheideologicalandhistoricalaspectsofBlackfiction.

[B]AttemptedtobemoreobjectiveinhisapproachtonovelsandstoriesbyBlackauthors.

[C]ExploreingreaterdetailtherecurrentthematicconcernsofBlackfictionthroughoutitshistory.

[D]Assessedtherelativeliterarymeritofthenovelsheanalyzesthematically.

3.author’sdiscussionofBlackFictioncanbebestdescribedas__________.

[A]Pedanticandcontentious.

[B]Criticalbutadmiring.

[C]Ironicanddeprecating.

[D]Argumentativebutunfocused.authorofthetextemploysallofthefollowinginthediscussionofRosenblatt’s

4.bookEXCEPT:__________.

[A]Rhetoricalquestions.

[B]Specificexamples.

[C]Comparisonandcontrast.

[D]Definitionofterms.

5.TheauthorofthetextreferstoJamesWeldonJohnson’sAutobiographyofanEx-ColoredManmostprobablyinorderto__________.

[A]pointoutaffinitiesbetweenRosenblatt’smethodofthematicanalysisandearliercriticism.

[B]Clarifythepointaboutexpressionisticstylemadeearlierinthepassage.

[C]QualifytheassessmentofRosenblatt’sbookmadeinthefirstparagraphofthepassage.

[D]giveaspecificexampleofoneoftheaccomplishmentsofRosenblatt’swork.

答案:

ADBDD

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】汉译英;我想不起来哪一个熟人没有手机。今天没有手机的人是奇怪的,这种人才需要解释。我们的所有社会关系都储存在手机的电话本里,可以随时调出使用。古代只有巫师才能拥有这种法宝。

手机刷新了人与人的关系。会议室门口通常贴着一条通告:请与会者关闭手机。可是会议室里的手机铃声仍然响成一片。我们都是普通人,并没有多少重要的事情。尽管如此,我们也不会轻易关掉手机。打开手机象征我们与这个世界的联系。手机反映出我们的"社交饥渴症"。最为常见的是,一个人走着走着突然停下来,眼睛盯着手机屏幕发短信。他不在乎停在马路中央还是厕所旁边。

为什么对于手机来电和短信这么在乎?因为我们迫切渴望与社会保持联系。

答案:

Cell phone has altered / renovated human relations / relationships. There is usually a note on the door of conference room, which reads “close your handset / cell phone.” However, the rings are still resounding in the room. We are all common people and have few urgencies to do. Still, we are reluctant to turn off the phone. Cell phone symbolizes our connection with the world and reflects our“thirst for socialization.”

We are familiar with the scene that a person stops his steps to edit short messages with eyes glued at his phone, regardless of his location, whether in road center or beside restroom.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】汉译英:暮色中,河湾里落满云霞,与天际的颜色混合一起,分不清哪是流云哪是水湾。也就在这一幅绚烂的图画旁边,在河湾之畔,一群羊正在低头觅食。它们几乎没有一个顾得上抬起头来,看一眼这美丽的黄昏。也许它们要抓紧时间,在即将回家的最后一刻再次咀嚼。这是黄河滩上的一幕。牧羊人不见了,他不知在处歇息。只有这些美生灵自由自在地享受着这个黄昏。这儿水草肥美,让它们长得肥滚滚的,像些胖娃娃。如果走近了,会发现它们那可爱的神情,洁白的牙齿,那丰富而单纯的表情。如果稍稍长久一点端详这张张面庞,还会生出无限的怜悯。

答案:

Beside this picture with profusions of colors, a group of sheep are lowing their heads, eating by the river bank. Hardly none of them would spare some time to raise their eyes to have a glance at the beautiful dusk. They are, perhaps, taking use of every minute to enjoy their last chew before being driven home. This is a picture of the Yellow River bank, in which the shepherd disappears, and no one knows where he is resting himself. Only the sheep, however, as free creatures, are joyfully appreciating the dusk. The exuberant water plants have nutrited the sheep, making them grow as fat as balls. When approaching near, you would find their lily-white teeth and a variety of innocent facial impressions.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】Writing:

Nowadays a lot of Chinese celebrate Western festivals. Some people are afraid that this would lead to the loss of Chinese culture. What do you think? Write an essay of about 400 words.

In the first part of your essay you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.

You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

答案:

Sample

The Celebration of Western Festivals

No one can have failed to notice the fact that Western festivals gain ever-increasing popularity in China. An increasing number of Chinese are fond of celebrating Western festivals today. On Valentine’s Day, many people, especially the young, give flowers or chocolate to the one they love; when Christmas approaches, nearly every store put on decorations like Santa Claus, snowflakes and even Christmas trees, not to mention the millions of people immersed in the thrilling atmosphere of festival on Christmas Eve; even such holidays as Halloween and the Easter Day are becoming known and celebrated by more and more Chinese. In comparison, such traditional Chinese festivals as the Spring Festival, the Festival of Lanterns and the Mid-Autumn Day seem to be losing their attraction.

In view of such a situation, many are worried that Chinese culture will be ignored or even ruined by the invasion of Western festivals. Personally, I believe that we needn’t be over worried. Actually, the increasing popularity of some Western festivals in China is nothing accidental, but some thing justifiable.

First, it is a part of cultural globalization. With the development of communication science and technology and along with more and more nations opening up to the outside world, the world today has turned into a global village, with many national things becoming international. China is no exception. While we are absorbing advanced science and technology from foreign countries, we are also taking in different cultures.

Secondly, it is a sign of China’s rejuvenating. As a nation boasting a civilization of 5,000 years, Chinese have been known for their spirit of accommodation or open-mindedness. China used to be a melting pot of cultures as the U.S. is today. In the prosperous Tang dynasty, China was host to travelers and settlers from over the world. Actually, being accommodating is a sign of any thriving nation. Therefore, we should be pleased rather than upset to see Chinese people embracing foreign festivals.

It is true that some traditional Chinese festivals are losing their appeal to many people, but this does not necessarily the ruin of Chinese culture. Actually, a closer inspection reveals that most Chinese celebrate Western festivals merely out of the wish to seek novelty, to find a new way to entertain themselves or to express their identity in the face of the older generation. On the other hand, most Chinese have not ignored their native festivals. A convincing proof is that the Spring Festival still sees the largest flow of population in the world as most Chinese rush to their homes for family reunion.

In a word, while we are giving priority to the preservation and development of traditional Chinese culture, we needn’t worry too much about the inflow of foreign culture.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】汉译英:生活就像一杯红酒,热爱生活的人会从其中品出无穷无尽的美妙。将它握在手中仔细观察,它的暗红色中有血的感觉,那正是生命的痕迹。抿一口留在口中回味,它的甘甜中有一丝苦涩,如人生一般复杂迷离。喝一口下肚,余香沁人心脾,让人终身受益。红酒越陈越美味,生活越丰富越美好。当人生走向晚年,就如一瓶待开封的好酒,其色彩是沉静的,味道中充满慷慨与智慧。

答案:

Life is like a cup of wine; people who love it discover inexhaustible wonders from it. Hold in the hand and gaze at it, the dark red color is reminiscent of the blood, which is the impress of life. Take a sip of it and appreciate the taste, the bittersweet flavor is exactly the same with life, which is complicated and blurred. Once the sip is swallowed, the lingering fragrance pleases the heart and refreshes the mind, leaving a person lifelong benefit. There was a remarkable resemblance between life and wine: the taste becomes more delicious as the wine mellows, just as life gets better as it becomes more abundant. When life comes to twilight years, it looks calm and tastes full of wisdom and generosity, just like a bottle of wine to be savored.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】汉译英:茶 花(camellia)的自然花期在 12 月至翌年 4 月,以红色系为主,另有黄色系和白色系等,花色艳丽。本届花展充分展示了茶花的品种资源和科研水平,是近三年来本市规模最大的一届茶花展。为了使广大植物爱好者有更多与茶花亲密接触的机会,本届茶花展的布展范围延伸至整个园区,为赏花游客带来便利。此次茶花展历时2个月,展期内 200 多个茶花品种将陆续亮相。

答案:

Camellia’s flowering period starts from December and ends in the next April,and the colors of the flowers are bright and showy with red in majority, yellow, white and other colors in minority. It’s the city’s largest camellia show in recent three years, which fully displays camellia ’s various species as well as human’s scientific research level of it. In order to provide the majority of plant-lovers with more opportunities to closely appreciate the beauty of camellia, the area of the Camellia Show is extended to the whole garden so that it can bring more convenience for the visitors.

The Camellia Show takes over two months, in which more than 200 various camellias will be presented successively.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】Writing:

InChina,torestorelostpropertytoitsoriginalownerisregardedasoneofthemostcherishedvirtues.However,thedraftpropertyrightslawstipulatesthatpropertyOwnersshouldpaysomemoneytotheonewhoreturnstheproperty.Isitadeviationfromtraditionalvalues?Writeacompositionofabout400wordstostateyourview.

Inthefirstpartofyouressayyoushouldstateclearlyyourmainargument,andinthesecondpartyoushouldsupportyourargumentwithappropriatedetails.Inthelastpartyoushouldbringwhatyouhavewrittentoanaturalconclusionormakeasummary.

Youshouldsupplyanappropriatetitleforyouressay.

Markswillbeawardedforcontent,organization,grammarandappropriateness.Failuretofollowtheaboveinstructionsmayresultinalossofmarks.

答案:

Sample

In Favor of Rewards for Good Conduct

To restore lost property to its original owner describes one of the most cherished virtues embodied by the Chinese people. The draft law stipulates that property owners should give rewards to the people or organizations that return their property, such as storage. To some people, the new provision challenges the virtue that China has advocated for thousands of years by including economic compensation into law. Yet to me, it is a good thing to regulate a moral concept with law.

Since people spend time and energy in restoring lost property, it is reasonable for the actual owner to offer some material reward. There is no contradiction between kind deeds and material compensation. If those who help others by fighting off robbers can be rewarded, why not those who return lost property? More importantly, giving people tangible reward has significance in reality. According to a survey, most people who get back their lost items are willing to give a reward to the finder. Providing a compromise solution between returning and keeping lost items, this new provision encourages people to return lost property rather than hiding it. Although one may say it diminishes the nobility associated with it, it is better to have more lost property restored to original ownership.

Law should play a role only where moral principle fails, otherwise, there would be chaos in social relations. I think this is the basis for transformation of law, specifically the stipulation of restoring lost property in propert, rights law. The major goal of this legislation is to restore property owners’ right over lost property. It is true that restoring lost property to its owner is our traditional virtue. For a long time, we have been relying on this moral principle in dealing with lost property. But today, we have to admit that it falls behind the realities of current society if we rely solely on it in handling the issue of lost property, the result is a much slighter possibility of lost property being returned and increasing disputes about restoring lost property.

All in all, without modification, traditional virtues will be going farther away from the realities of modern life and become irrelevant. What’s more, the draft of the property rights law stipulates that a finder“can’’ receive reward, which means they can also refuse reward. Thus, this does not thwart virtuous people from practicing our traditional virtues.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】汉译英;但是正如其他许多已经发生过的事情一样,当他们最终结婚后, 发现最憧憬的生活变得再实际不过了。他们非但没有分担各自原先的责任--- 正如那些学生们所说 " 一半一半 " ,相反却发现生活的重担加倍了。 这使得我们那两个结婚的朋友时常觉得沮丧;他们突然发现自己并没有过着天堂般的生活而是仍实实在在地生活在地球上,而且成为了新规则和新约束的奴隶。生活并没有比以前更自由、更幸福,因为他们要去承担新的责任。 既然成立了一个新的家庭, 那就无论如何也要尽一点家庭的义务。 他们深情地回想起订婚的那段时光, 曾经如此地渴望拥有彼此而忘掉这个世界,然而现在最深切的感受却是自己仍是这个世界的一份子。

答案:

But, as has been true in many other cases, when they were at last married, the most ideal of situations was found to have been changed to the most practical. Instead of having shared their original duties, and as school-boys would say, going halves, they discovered that the cares of life had been doubled. This led to some distressing moments for both our friends; they understood suddenly that instead of dwelling in heaven they were still upon earth, and had make themselves slaves to new laws and limitations. Instead of being freer and happier than ever before, they had assumed new responsibilities; they had established a new household, and must fulfill in some way or another the obligations of it. They looked back with affection to their engagement; they had been longing to have other to themselves, apart from the world, but it seemed they never felt so keenly that they were still units in modern society.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】Writing:

Astatementgoesthat“onlythroughmistakescantherebediscoveryorprogress”.Towhatdegreedoyouagreewiththisstatement?Writeanessayofabout400words.

Inthefirstpartofyouressayyoushouldstateclearlyyourmainargument,andinthesecondpartyoushouldsupportyourargumentwithappropriatedetails.Inthelastpartyoushouldbringwhatyouhavewrittentoanaturalconclusionormakeasummary.

Youshouldsupplyanappropriatetitleforyouressay.

Markswillbeawardedforcontent,organization,grammarandappropriateness.Failuretofollowtheaboveinstructionsmayresultinalossofmarks.

答案:

Sample

Failure Teaches Success

Paul Ehrlich, a chemist, discovered a drug to treat those afflicted with syphilis(梅毒). It was named "Formula 606," because the first 605 tests were mistakes. The lesson we can draw from this story is clear and simple: discovery or progress is born in mistakes.

Making mistakes is a valuable learning experience. A now famous story at IBM involved founder Thomas Watson and one of his vice presidents who took the initiative on the development of a new product. As reported in Fortune, the product was a risky venture that ended up a colossal failure and cost the company $10 million. Watson called the executive into his office saying there was something he wanted to discuss with him. Sure he was about to lose his job; the young man blurted out, "I guess you want my resignation?" Watson replied, "You must be kidding. We've just spent $10 million educating you." Watson's logic is this: anyone making a multi-million-dollar mistake had to learn something that would help him do a better job the next time.

Furthermore, making mistakes gives one an opportunity to try a new approach. China's progress in the past decades is a case in point. After Liberation in 1949, China, under the leadership of Chairman Mao, gradually built up a nationwide state-run economy. This mode of economy was originally intended to ensure both stable economic development and social justice. Unfortunately, what it resulted in was economic stagnation and lasting poverty. Recognizing this fatal mistake in Mao's economic policy, Deng Xiaoping took a new approach—a gradual but dramatic reform. He first introduced some elements of market economy, hoping to juxtapose planned economy and market economy. This approach worked for some years, but then proved ineffective. Finally, after a series of trials and errors, he decided that market economy was China's only choice. Due to this strategic turning, China's economy has now embarked upon a stable and dynamic course. Although Mao's mistakes caused Chinese people painful sacrifice, we are lucky that we have learned our lessons and now we are marching on the road of prosperity.

Admittedly, mistakes will not automatically lead to discovery or progress. We must analyze every failure to find its cause; we must honestly face defeat and never fake success; we must exploit the failure, we must never use failure as an excuse for not trying again. In a word, we must learn how to fail intelligently.

As a saying goes, to err is human. To this I would add: To learn from errors is progress.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】BernardBailynhasrecentlyreinterpretedtheearlyhistoryoftheUnitedStatesbyapplyingnewsocialresearchfindingsontheexperiencesofEuropeanmigrants.Inhisreinterpretation,migrationbecomestheorganizingprincipleforrewritingthehistoryofpreindustrialNorthAmerica.Hisapproachrestsonfourseparatepropositions.ThefirstoftheseassertsthatresidentsofearlymodernEnglandmovedregularlyabouttheircountryside;migratingtotheNewWorldwassimplyanaturalspillover.AlthoughatfirstthecoloniesheldlittlepositiveattractionfortheEnglishDtheywouldratherhavestayedhomeDbytheeighteenthcenturypeopleincreasinglymigratedtoAmericabecausetheyregardeditasthelandofopportunity.Secondly,Bailynholdsthat,contrarytothenotionthatusedtoflourishinAmericahistorytextbooks,therewasneveratypicalNewWorldcommunity.Forexample,theeconomicanddemographiccharacterofearlyNewEnglandtownsvariedconsiderably.Bailyn'sthirdpropositionsuggesttwogeneralpatternsprevailingamongthemanythousandsofmigrants:onegroupcameasindenturedservants,anothercametoacquireland.Surprisingly,Bailynsuggeststhatthosewhorecruitedindenturedservantswerethedrivingforcesoftransatlanticmigration.ThesecolonialentrepreneurshelpeddeterminethesocialcharacterofpeoplewhocametopreindustrialNorthAmerica.Atfirst,thousandsofunskilledlaborerswererecruited;bythe1730's,however,Americanemployersdemandedskilledartisans.Finally,Bailynarguesthatthecolonieswereahalf-civilizedhinterlandoftheEuropeanculturesystem.HeisundoubtedlycorrecttoinsistthatthecolonieswerepartofanAnglo-Americanempire.ButtodividetheempireintoEnglishcoreandcolonialperiphery,asBailyndoes,devaluestheachievementsofcolonialculture.Itistrue,asBailynclaims,thathighcultureinthecoloniesnevermatchedthatinEngland.Butwhatofseventeenth-centuryNewEngland,wherethesettlerscreatedeffectivelaws,builtadistinguisheduniversity,andpublishedbooksBailynmightrespondthatNewEnglandwasexceptional.However,theideasandinstitutionsdevelopedbyNewEnglandPuritanshadpowerfuleffectsonNorthAmericanculture.AlthoughBailyngoesontoapplyhisapproachtosomethousandsofindenturedservantswhomigratedjustpriortotherevolution,hefailstolinktheirexperiencewiththepoliticaldevelopmentoftheUnitedStates.Evidencepresentedinhisworksuggestshowwemightmakesuchaconnection.TheseindenturedservantsweretreatedasslavesfortheperiodduringwhichtheyhadsoldtheirtimetoAmericanemployers.Itisnotsurprisingthatassoonastheyservedtheirtimetheypassedupgoodwagesinthecitiesandheadedwesttoensuretheirpersonalindependencebyacquiringland.Thus,itisinthewestthatapeculiarlyAmericanpoliticalculturebegan,amongcolonistswhoweresuspiciousofauthorityandintenselyanti-aristocratic.

1.WhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutmigrantstocolonialNorthAmericaissupportedbyinformationinthetext

[A]AlargerpercentageofmigrantstocolonialNorthAmericacameasindenturedservantsthanasfreeagentsinterestedinacquiringland.

[B]Migrantswhocametothecoloniesasindenturedservantsweremoresuccessfulatmakingalivelihoodthanwerefarmersandartisans.

[C]MigrantstocolonialNorthAmericaweremoresuccessfulatacquiringtheirownlandduringtheeighteenthcenturythanduringtheseventeenthcentury.

[D]Bythe1730's,migrantsalreadyskilledinatradewereinmoredemandbyAmericanemployersthanwereunskilledlaborers.

2.TheauthorofthetextstatesthatBailynfailedto

[A]GivesufficientemphasistotheculturalandpoliticalinterdependenceofthecoloniesandEngland.

[B]DescribecarefullyhowmigrantsofdifferentethnicbackgroundspreservedtheircultureintheUnitedStates.

[C]TakeadvantageofsocialresearchontheexperiencesofcolonistswhomigratedtocolonialNorthAmericaspecificallytoacquireland.

[D]RelatetheexperienceofthemigrantstothepoliticalvaluesthateventuallyshapedthecharacteroftheUnitedStates.

3.Whichofthefollowingbestsummarizestheauthor'sevaluationofBailyn'sfourthproposition

[A]Itistotallyimplausible.

[B]Itispartiallyacceptable.

[C]Itishighlyadmirable.

[D]Itiscontroversialthoughpersuasive.

4.Accordingtothetext,BailynandtheauthoragreeonwhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutthecultureofcolonialNewEngland

[A]HighcultureinNewEnglandneverequaledthehighcultureofEngland.

[B]TheculturalachievementsofcolonialNewEnglandhavegenerallybeenunrecognizedbyhistorians.

[C]ThecolonistsimitatedthehighcultureofEngland,anddidnotdevelopaculturethatwasuniquelytheirown.

[D]ThesoutherncoloniesweregreatlyinfluencedbythehighcultureofNewEngland.

5.TheauthorofthetextwouldbemostlikelytoagreewithwhichofthefollowingstatementsaboutBailyn'swork

[A]BailynunderestimatestheeffectsofPuritanthoughtonNorthAmericanculture.

[B]BailynoveremphasizestheeconomicdependenceofthecoloniesonGreatBritain.

[C]Bailyn'sdescriptionofthecoloniesaspartofanAnglo-Americanempireismisleadingandincorrect.

[D]BailynfailedtotesthispropositionsonaspecificgroupofmigrantstocolonialNorthAmerica.

答案:

DDBAA

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】Thetouristtradeisbooming.Withallthiscomingandgoing,you'dexpectgreaterunderstandingodevelopbetweenthenationsoftheworld.Notabitofit!Superbsystemsofcommunicationbyair,seaandlandmakeitpossibleforustovisiteachother'scountriesatamoderatecost.Whatwasoncethe'grandtour',reservedforonlytheveryrich,isnowwithineverybody'sgrasp?

Thepackagetourandcharteredflightsarenottobesneeredat.Moderntravelersenjoyalevelofcomfortwhichthelordsandladiesongrandtoursintheolddayscouldn'thavedreamedof.Butwhat'sthesenseofthismassexchangeofpopulationsifthenationsoftheworldremainbasicallyignorantofeachother?

Manytouristorganizationsaredirectlyresponsibleforthisstateofaffairs.Theydeliberatelysetouttoprotecttheirclientsfromtoomuchcontactwiththelocalpopulation.Themoderntouristleadsacosseted,shelteredlife.Helivesatinternationalhotels,whereheeatshisinternationalfoodandsipshisinternationaldrinkwhilehegazesatthenativesfromadistance.Conductedtourstoplacesofinterestarecarefullycensored.Thetouristisallowedtoseeonlywhattheorganizerswanthimtoseeandnomore.Astrictschedulemakesitimpossibleforthetouristtowanderoffonhisown;andanyway,languageisalwaysabarrier,soheisonlytoohappytobeprotectedinthisway.Atitsveryworst,thisleadstoanewandhideouskindofcolonization.

Thesummerquartersoftheinhabitantsoftheciteuniversitaire:aretemporarilyreestablishedontheislandofCorfu.BlackpoolisrecreatedatTorremolinoswherethetravelergoesnottoeatpaella,butfishandchips.Thesadthingaboutthissituationisthatitleadstothepersistenceofnationalstereotypes.Wedon'tseethepeopleofothernationsastheyreallyare,butaswehavebeenbroughtuptobelievetheyare.Youcantestthisforyourself.Takefivenationalities,say,French,German,English,AmericanandItalian.Nowinyourmind,matchthemwiththesefiveadjectives:musical,amorous,cold,pedantic,native.Farfromprovidinguswithanyinsightintothenationalcharacteristicsofthepeoplesjustmentioned,theseadjectivesactuallyactasbarriers.Sowhenyousetoutonyourtravels,theonlycharacteristicsyounoticearethosewhichconfirmyourpreconceptions.Youcomeawaywiththehighlyunoriginalandinaccurateimpressionthat,say,'Anglo-Saxonsarehypocrites'ofthat'Latinpeoplesshoutalot'.Youonlyhavetomakeafewforeignfriendstounderstandhowabsurdandharmfulnationalstereotypesare.Buthowcanyoumakeforeignfriendswhenthetouristtradedoesitsbesttopreventyou?Carriedtoanextreme,stereotypescanbepositivelydangerous.Wildgeneralizationsstirupracialhatredandblindustothebasicfact〞howtriteitsounds!每Thatallpeoplearehuman.Weareallsimilartoeachotherandatthesametimeallunique.

1.Thebesttitleforthispassageis

[A]Tourismcontributesnothingtoincreasingunderstandingbetweennations.

[B]Tourismistiresome.

[C]Conductedtourisdull.

[D]Tourismreallydoessomethingtoone'scountry.

2.Whatistheauthor'sattitudetowardtourism?

[A]apprehensive.[B]negative.[C]critical.[D]appreciative.

3.WhichwordinthefollowingisthebesttosummarizeLatinpeopleshoutalot?

[A]silent.[B]noisy.[C]lively.[D]active.

4.Thepurposeoftheauthor'scriticismistopointout

[A]conductedtourisdisappointing.

[B]thewayoftouringshouldbechanged.

[C]whentraveling,younoticecharacteristicswhichconfirmpreconception.

[D]nationalstereotypesshouldbechanged.

5.Whatis'grandtour'now?

[A]moderatecost.

[B]localsight-seeingisinvestigatedbythetouristorganization.

[C]peopleenjoythefirst-ratecomforts.

[D]everybodycanenjoythe'grandtour'

答案:

ACBBD

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】Insomecountrieswhereracialprejudiceisacute,violencehassocometobetakenforgrantedasameansofsolvingdifferences,thatitisnotevenquestioned.Therearecountrieswherethewhitemanimposeshisrulebybruteforce;therearecountrieswheretheblackmanprotestsbysettingfiretocitiesandbylootingandpillaging.Importantpeopleonbothsides,whowouldinotherrespectsappeartobereasonablemen,getupandcalmlyargueinfavorofviolence–asifitwerealegitimatesolution,likeanyother.Whatisreallyfrightening,whatreallyfillsyouwithdespair,istherealizationthatwhenitcomestothecrunch,wehavemadenoactualprogressatall.Wemaywearcollarsandtiesinsteadofwar-paint,butourinstinctsremainbasicallyunchanged.Thewholeoftherecordedhistoryofthehumanrace,thattediousdocumentationofviolence,hastaughtusabsolutelynothing.Wehavestillnotlearntthatviolenceneversolvesaproblembutmakesitmoreacute.Thesheerhorror,thebloodshed,thesufferingmeannothing.Nosolutionevercomestolightthemorningafterwhenwedismallycontemplatethesmokingruinsandwonderwhathitus.Thetrulyreasonablemenwhoknowwherethesolutionsliearefindingitharderandherdertogetahearing.Theyaredespised,mistrustedandevenpersecutedbytheirownkindbecausetheyadvocatesuchapparentlyoutrageousthingsaslawenforcement.Ifhalftheenergythatgoesintoviolentactswereputtogooduse,ifoureffortsweredirectedatcleaninguptheslumsandghettos,atimprovingliving-standardsandprovidingeducationandemploymentforall,wewouldhavegonealongwaytoarrivingatasolution.Ourstrengthissappedbyhavingtomopupthemessthatviolenceleavesinitswake.Inawell-directedeffort,itwouldnotbeimpossibletofulfilltheidealsofastablesocialprogramme.Thebenefitsthatcanbederivedfromconstructivesolutionsareeverywhereapparentintheworldaroundus.Genuineandlastingsolutionsarealwayspossible,providingweworkwithintheframeworkofthelaw.Beforewecanevenbegintocontemplatepeacefulco-existencebetweentheraces,wemustappreciateeachother'sproblems.Andtodothis,wemustlearnaboutthem:itisasimpleexerciseincommunication,inexchanginginformation."Talk,talk,talk,"theadvocatesofviolencesay,"allyoueverdoistalk,andwearenonethewiser."It'sratherlikethestoryofthefamousbarristerwhopainstakinglyexplainedhiscasetothejudge.Afterlisteningtoalengthyargumentthejudgecomplainedthatafterallthistalk,hewasnonethewiser."Possible,mylord,"thebarristerreplied,"nonethewiser,butsurelyfarbetterinformed."Knowledgeisthenecessaryprerequisitetowisdom:theknowledgethatviolencecreatestheevilsitpretendstosolve.

1.Whatisthebesttitleforthispassage?

[A]AdvocatingViolence.

[B]ViolenceCanDoNothingtoDiminishRacePrejudice.

[C]ImportantPeopleonBothSidesSeeViolenceAsaLegitimateSolution.

[D]TheInstinctsofHumanRaceAreThirstyforViolence.

2.Recordedhistoryhastaughtus

[A]violenceneversolvesanything.[B]nothing.[C]thebloodshedmeansnothing.[D]everything.

3.Itcanbeinferredthattrulyreasonablemen

[A]can'tgetahearing.

[B]arelookeddownupon.

[C]arepersecuted.

[D]Havedifficultyin

advocatinglawenforcement.

4."Hewasnonethewiser"means

[A]hewasnotatallwiseinlistening.

[B]Hewasnotatallwiserthannothingbefore.

[C]Hegainsnothingafterlistening.

[D]Hemakesnosenseoftheargument.

5.Accordingtheauthorthebestwaytosolveraceprejudiceis

[A]lawenforcement.[B]knowledge.[C]nonviolence.[D]Moppinguptheviolentmess.

答案:

BBDCA

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】Writing:

Thepresentworldwitnessesinventionanduseofvariousrobots,someofwhomevencanplaygameswithhumananddefeatthelatter.Suchbeingthecase,manyareworriedthatrobotswillsurpasshumanbeingsinintelligenceandenslavethem,whileothersbelievethatthehumanmindwillalwaysbesuperiortomachinesbecausemachinesareonlytoolsofhumanminds.Whatisyouropinion?Writeanessayofabout400words.

Inthefirstpartofyouressayyoushouldstateclearlyyourmainargument,andinthesecondpartyoushouldsupportyourargumentwithappropriatedetails.Inthelastpartyoushouldbringwhatyouhavewrittentoanaturalconclusionormakeasummary.

Youshouldsupplyanappropriatetitleforyouressay.

Markswillbeawardedforcontent,organization,grammarandappropriateness.Failuretofollowtheaboveinstructionsmayresultinalossofmarks.

答案:

Sample

Robots: Superior to Mankind?

Nowadays, there is a public controversy concerning the issue of whether mankind will always be superior to machines. Some people argue that since machines are only tools of humankind, they will always be inferior to us, while others hold that machines, especially computers with artificial intelligence, will ultimately surpass us in every aspect of intellectual life. In my opinion, we must carefully consider what we mean by the word "superior" before we can answer the question.

If "superior" is meant to mean the knowledge, speed, and accuracy in doing certain technical jobs, the machines of our day will surpass human beings in most areas, given their efficiency and endurance. For instance, a specially designed computer program can solve a complex equation in moments that would take a person working with pencil and paper several days to solve. What's more, computers can keep on working for days even months without any need for rest and no diminishment in accuracy, while people require rest and recreation. Computers can store and instantly retrieve vast amounts of information in its memory while people may often forget the most important thing. Some machines, such as a hoist, are capable of accomplishing feats of strength that no human individual could ever dream of. In this sense, machines are like miracles that we have created to help us in our adaptation and reconstruction of the material world.

However, if the word "superior" is defined on the basis of creative thinking and emotional sensitivity, machines are inferior to mankind, at least at the present time. For example, we recognize familiar faces within a second or less, but a computer must follow a series of complex procedures in order to recognize even a face that has been presented to it thousands of times. Besides, while computers have been developed that are capable of producing works of art, such as pictures and musical compositions, such computer-generated works are devoid of any their creator's feelings since computers are non-sensate. Since machines, especially computers, are developing at a tremendous rate today, we can't rule out the possibility that in the future the machines can surpass humans in almost every field. But up to now, it is still incomparable to the power of human thinking in many aspects and is still under human control. Human beings should make good use of machines and remember that their development is meant to benefit mankind.

For the reasons mentioned above, I hold that humans and machines are not comparable unless we define our specific usage of the word "superior". Machines have the advantage in some areas while the human being holds the edge in the realm of creative thinking. We should utilize machines to support and enhance our thinking about the social life and avoid their improper use and application.

解析:

暂无解析

1、【题目】The tourist trade is booming. With all this coming and going , you'd expect greater understanding o develop between the nations of the world. Not a bit of it ! Superb systems of communication by air, sea and land make it possible for us to visit each other's countries at a moderate cost. What was once the 'grand tour' , reserved for only the very rich , is now within everybody's grasp ?

The package tour and chartered flights are not to be sneered at. Modern travelers enjoy a level of comfort which the lords and ladies on grand tours in the old days couldn't have dreamed of. But what's the sense of this mass exchange of populations if the nations of the world remain basically ignorant of each other?

Many tourist organizations are directly responsible for this state of affairs. They deliberately set out to protect their clients from too much contact with the local population. The modern tourist leads a cosseted, sheltered life. He lives at international hotels , where he eats his international food and sips his international drink while he gazes at the natives from a distance. Conducted tours to places of interest are carefully censored. The tourist is allowed to see only what the organizers want him to see and no more. A strict schedule makes it impossible for the tourist to wander off on his own ; and anyway, language is always a barrier, so he is only too happy to be protected in this way. At its very worst , this leads to a new and hideous kind of colonization.

The summer quarters of the inhabitants of the cite universitaire : are temporarily reestablished on the island of Corfu. Blackpool is recreated at Torremolinos where the traveler goes not to eat paella, but fish and chips. The sad thing about this situation is that it leads to the persistence of national stereotypes. We don't see the people of other nations as they really are, but as we have been brought up to believe they are. You can test this for yourself. Take five nationalities , say, French, German, English, American and Italian. Now in your mind, match them with these five adjectives : musical, amorous, cold, pedantic, native. Far from providing us with any insight into the national characteristics of the peoples just mentioned , these adjectives actually act as barriers. So when you set out on your travels, the only characteristics you notice are those which confirm your preconceptions. You come away with the highly unoriginal and inaccurate impression that , say,'Anglo-Saxons are hypocrites' of that 'Latin peoples shout a lot'. You only have to make a few foreign friends to understand how absurd and harmful national stereotypes are. But how can you make foreign friends when the tourist trade does its best to prevent you ? Carried to an extreme, stereotypes can be positively dangerous. Wild generalizations stir up racial hatred and blind us to the basic fact 〞how trite it sounds ! 每 That all people are human. We are all similar to each other and at the same time all unique.

1. The best title for this passage is

[A] Tourism contributes nothing to increasing understanding between nations.

[B] Tourism is tiresome.

[C] Conducted tour is dull.

[D] Tourism really does something to one's country.

2. What is the author's attitude toward tourism ?

[A] apprehensive. [B]negative. [C] critical. [D] appreciative.

3. Which word in the following is the best to summarize Latin people shout a lot?

[A] silent. [B] noisy. [C] lively. [D] active.

4. The purpose of the author's criticism is to point out

[A] conducted tour is disappointing.

[B]the way of touring should be changed.

[C] when traveling , you notice characteristics which confirm preconception.

[D] national stereotypes should be changed.

5. What is 'grand tour' now ?

[A] moderate cost.

[B]local sight-seeing is investigated by the tourist organization.

[C] people enjoy the first-rate comforts.

[D] everybody can enjoy the 'grand tour'

答案:

ACBBD

解析:

1.A旅游对增进民族了解毫无建树。第二段开始点出,许多旅游组织直接负责旅游事宜,他们有意识不让旅游者接触当地居民,让他们过着一种关怀备至又与世隔绝的生活。住的是国际饭店,吃的是国际食品,喝的是国际饮料,在原处观看当地居民。严格有序的计划使旅游者难以自己一人闲逛,语言的障碍,又使他们乐意接受保护。第三段涉及坚持民族模式化――老一套的想法,所以一开始旅游,你见到的民族特性就只是证实了你自己设想的基本事实――所有人民都是人类。只有交朋友才能知道民族模式是多么荒谬、有害,可是旅行社竭力制止,你又怎么能交上外国朋友呢?这一切说明A项对。B.旅游很累。C.导游观光很单调乏味。D.旅游确实对国家有贡献。

2.C批评。

3.B吵吵闹闹的。

4.B旅游的方式应改变。整篇文章(除第一段外)都环绕旅游方式不理想来进行批评。第二段集中在导游观光使旅游者难以和当地人民接触。第三段,见到的只是证实了旅游者本人事先形成的思想/先入之见,旅游根本达不到了解对方的目的。第四段讲了民族固定模式(先入之见的模式)的可怕后果。要使人懂得所有的人们都是人类,彼此相似,又各具特点,就得改变旅游的方式。A.导游观光令人失望。C.旅游时,你见到的特性证实了你的先入之见。D.民族模式应当改变。这三条都是批评的具体内容。

5.D人人都能享受大旅游。大旅行是专指英国富家子弟上学中的一门课程-到欧洲大陆观光。不是人人都能享受。这里用grandtour表示人人都能享受类似grandtour的一切,甚至超过,如第一段指出:现代旅游者享受的舒适设施,达到了大旅行中老爷、小姐们做梦都没有想到的水平。海陆空高级交流联络通讯系统,使人们有可能钱花得不多就能访问、观光别的国家。所以说,曾是有钱人专享的大旅行,普通人也能领略。“grandtour有引号,表”明作为比喻。A.费用不高。文内是费用合适、中等、恰当。B.当地观光受组织审查。C.人们喜欢一流舒适设施。

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